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FLY FISHING TERMINOLOGY

COLORADO FLY FISHING TRIPS | RESOURCES & LOCAL FISHING INFORMATION

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COLORADO FLY & FISHING TERMINOLOGY & GLOSSARY
Lingo is always fun and functional for every activity. So if you are trying to figure out what a Blood Knot is or the first stage of a mayflies life cycle is (Dun) then look to our Terminology Glossary & Lingo page.
A
Action: An elusive but essential characteristic of fly rods. Rods are said to have fast or slow action. Fast action rods are generally stiffer overall, but bend more at the tip, generating higher line speeds longer casts, especially into the wind. Slow action rods appear to flex their entire length, giving the sense of a more compliant feel.
Adult: the winged stage of aquatic insects; reproductive stage.
 
B
Backcast: The casting of line in a direction opposite to the direction the fly is intended to go. The backward counterpart of the forward cast which acts to create a bending action on the fly rod, setting up the conditions to generate the forward cast and present the fly.
Backing: The first segment of line on a reel, usually braided and used to build up the arbor and to offer additional distance for a strong fish to pull out line. An unusually strong fish will take you "into your backing".
Badger: A feather of a specially bred or chosen chicken that has colors which change from brown--black to black at the center of the quill to ginger or white on the outer edges.
Bamboo: oldest rod building material still in use; the classical fly rod material
Barbless: Barbless hooks are either manufactured without a barb or the barb is squeezed down. This feature makes it easier to remove a hook and minimizes the handling and potential damage of a fish you may want to release.
Barrel knot: See blood knot
Bass Bug: the name used to describe a large number of surface bass flies usually tied with hollow hair (such as deer hair).
Bass Bug Taper: a particular weight forward floating fly line with a short front taper so that the generally wind-resistant bass bugs can turn over (see weight forward and turn over).
Beadhead: Usually but not always a fly with a bead immediately behind the hook eye. Beads come in many materials, from brass to nickel brass to ceramic. Some beads help a fly sink, but others are floaters.
Belly: A tapered fly line has several components, with a fairly sharply tapered tip (at the fly end). The middle portion of the line is called the belly.
Belly boat: Originally using a tractor or truck inner tube, this is a one-person craft with a seat across the bottom on which the fly fisher sits. Feet are in the water and scuba fins are used to move the tube around. This type of fishing boat is very popular with warm water fly fishers and with individuals who fish high mountain lakes. Also called a belly boat. See kick boat.
Bimini Twist: A knot used in saltwater fly fishing for tarpon. It has a loop and a double line section making it especially strong.
Blank: Fiberglass and graphite fly rods (which also have fiberglass) are produced by wrapping sheets of graphite and fiberglass around a carefully tapered steel rod (called a mandrel). The hollow rod that results from this process is called a blank. It has no guides, ferrules or reel seats.
Blood Knot: the most widely used knot for tying two pieces of monofilament with similar diameters together; the best knot for construction of a knotted tapered leader; also called the barrel knot.
Bobbin: A fly tying tool and term borrowed from seamstresses. A bobbin holds the tying thread.
Bodkin: A bodkin is a tool best described as a needle with a handle. It can be easily made from a piece of wooden dowling and a needle. It is used in fly tying used to deposit cement or lacquer to a fly.
Braided loop connector: A way of putting an in-line loop at the end of your fly line so as to use the loop on the leader to do a loop-to-loop connection between the leader and the fly line. The braided loop connector works like the so-called Chinese finger torture.
Breakoff: A term of defeat and excitement for a fly angler describing the event of a hooked fish breaking your tippet or leader. Usually a break off results from an unusually strong or big fish.
Breaking Strength: the amount of effort required to break a single strand of unknotted monofilament or braided line, usually stated in pounds (example: 6 lb. test).
Bucktail: (1) the hair found on the tail of the Eastern whitetail deer, used in the tying of many types of flies, can be dyed any color, or used natural, (2) a type of minnow simulating fly, usually constructed of bucktail.
Butt section: The thicker end of a tapered leader that is tied to the fly line.
 
C
Caddis: one of the three most important aquatic insects imitated by fly fishermen; found worldwide in all freshwater habitats; adult resembles a moth when in flight; at rest, the wings are folded in a tent shape down the back; the most important aquatic state of the caddis is the pupa, which is its emerging stage (also see larva, pupa, and emerger).
Catch and release: A practice originating in the late 1930s to conserve fish populations by unhooking and returning a caught fish to the water in which it was caught. This is a highly successful practice in many warmwater, cold water and saltwater settings.
Casting Arc: the path that the fly rod follows during a complete cast, usually related to the face of a clock.
Caudal fin: Caudal is an anatomical term meaning "the back". The caudal fin is the tail fin or tail of a fish.
Char: A species of fish that is related to trout, that prefers cold water and is found many places in the world, including both east and west United States. Examples of char are brook trout, lake trout, arctic char and Dolly Varden.
Click drag: A mechanical system on many inexpensive fly reels used to slow down or resist the pulling efforts of a fish, so as to slow the fish down and tire it to the point where it can be landed. Basically a clicking sound is created by a triangular steel ratchet snaps over the teeth of the gear in the reel spool. The term singing reels refers to the high frequency clicking associated with a big fish pulling out line .
Clinch knot: A very popular knot for tying the tippet to the fly. It has the advantage of being very easy to tie and not using much line. See improved clinch.
Co-Polymers: mixtures of various nylons and plastics along with anti-UV chemicals that have resulted in the exceptionally high breaking strength of modern tippet material. Orvis Super Strong and Rio Powerflex is a copolymer tippet material. This is undoubtedly one of the most significant advancements in fly fishing in the last 50 years. It allows us to use very fine tippets with breaking strengths two to four times as strong as regular nylon monofilament. Co-polymers are not as abrasion-resistant as regular nylon monofilament.
Collar: A ring of feathers or hair placed immediately behind the head of the fly.
Curve cast: A casting technique that allows an angler to cast a fly around an obstacle. It is also used to minimize the influence of water current or wind on the fly or the fly line.
 
D
Damping: reducing excess vibrations in the rod blank when unloading the rod during a cast. This causes fewer waves in your fly line resulting in more power & distance for less effort.
Damselfly: an important Stillwater aquatic insect most commonly imitated in the nymphal form; usually hatches in early to mid-summer. The adult looks like a dragonfly but folds its wings along its back when at rest.
Dapping: A relatively ancient technique of presenting a fly on the surface of the water where the fly is connected to a short piece of line on a long rod. The fly is then touched on the surface of the water, immediately over an place where a fish might lie
Dead Drift: A term applied to the way that artificial flies must drift with the current to appear natural. This requires that the fly line, leader and tippet move with the fly and cause unnatural drag or a "v" that will result in most fish refusing the fly.
Disk Drag: A mechanical system on more expensive fly reels whereby resistance is created to the line as a fish pulls it out. This resistance is intended to slow the fish and tire it. The resistance proper is created by applying pressure between two disks. Different from the click drag, the disk drag is smoother and less likely to create a sudden force that will break the line
Double Haul: The term for the cast where the caster quickly pulls and releases the line on both the back cast and the forward cast. It is used to create greater line speed, enabling the caster to reach farther or cut through wind.
Deer Hair: most commonly used of the hollow hairs for fly tying; used for the Humpy and the Muddler Minnow styles of flies.
Double Taper (DT): a standard fly line design in which both ends of the line are tapered, while the more significant portion or “belly” of the line is level; excellent line for short to moderate length casts, and for roll casting; not as well suited for distance casts; commonly available in floating, or sinking styles.
Drag: (1) term used to describe an unnatural motion of the fly caused by the effect of the current on line and leader. Drag is usually detrimental, though at times useful (such as imitating the actions of the adult caddis). (2) Resistance applied to the reel spool to prevent it from turning faster than the line leaving the spool (used in playing larger fish).
Dropper: A practice of fishing two flies at the same time, often one on the surface and a second underwater. This increases the chances of getting a successful fly in front of a fish.
Dry Fly: any fly fished upon the surface of the water, usually constructed of non-water-absorbent materials, most commonly used to imitate the adult stage of aquatic insects.
Dry Fly Floatant: chemical preparation that is applied to a dry fly (before using the fly) to waterproof it; it may be a paste, liquid, or aerosol.
Dubbing: Fly tying material (usually strands or fibrous, including fur, yarn, wool, or synthetic fibers) that are wrapped onto a thread (commonly using wax) and wrapped around the shank of the hook to imitate the abdomen and/or thorax of an artificial fly.
Dun: (1) first stage in the adult mayfly’s life cycle; usually of short duration (1 to 24 hours); this is the stage most often imitated by the dry fly; (2) a darkish gray-blue color that is very desirable in some fly tying materials.
Duncan's loop: A monofilament knot used most often to tie a tippet to the eye of a hook. Also called a uni-knot.
 
E
Emerger: referring to aquatic insects, the name used to describe that time frame when the nymph reaches the surface, and the adult hatches out; the emerging nymph may well be the single most crucial nymph phase for the fly fishers to imitate.
 
F
False Cast: standard fly fishing cast; used to lengthen and shorten line, to change direction, and to dry off the fly; frequently overused. In false casting, the line is kept moving backward and forwards without being allowed to touch the surface of the water or the ground (see casting arc, backcast, and forward cast).
Ferrule: A collar that is found at the point where sections of a fly rod are joined. The end of one section fits inside the end of another, in an overlapping fashion at the ferrule.
Flat: An expansive area of water with a relatively unchanging (flat ) depth, often over a sand or grass bottom. A common water topography for certain species of fish, like bonefish.
Floatant: A water-proofing (usually oily) salve or cream that is used to help flies, leaders and fly lines float.
Floating Fly Line (F): a fly line where the entire line floats; best all-round fly line (see double taper, level, shooting head, weight forward).
Float tube: Originally using a tractor or truck inner tube, this is a one-person craft with a seat across the bottom on which the fly fisher sits. Feet are in the water and scuba fins are used to move the tube around. This type of fishing boat is very popular with warm water fly fishers and with individuals who fish high mountain lakes. See kick boat.
Fly: An imitation of a fish food item, traditionally very light and made of hair, feathers and thread tied to a hook. Modern flies have many synthetic materials and often include lead to help them sink.
Fly Casting: the standard method of presenting a fly to a target using a fly rod and fly line; involves many different casts (see back cast, forward cast, false cast, roll cast, “S” cast, and shooting line).
Fly Fishing: A technique for fishing where the weight of the line is used to cast a very light weight fly that would not be heavy enough to be cast with a conventional spinning or casting rod.
Fly Line: A line for fly fishing, originally of silk but currently made of a plastic coating over a braided line core. Fly lines are commonly 1.5 to 2 mm in diameter. The plastic coating gives the line weight and is commonly distributed unevenly to make the line easier to cast. A weight forward line, for example, has a greater plastic thickness near the forward (or fly) end of the line. Fly lines are not particularly long, generally not exceeding 105 feet. See taper, weight forward, double taper. Fly lines are rated in different weights, from 1 to 11, referring to the weight of the first 30 feet of the fly line.
Fly Reel: A special fishing reel with fairly simple mechanics (compared to spinning or bait casting reels) designed to hold large diameter fly line. A fly reel is relatively light and attaches below the handle on a fly rod. More sophisticated (and expensive) fly reels have a drag system that creates resistance to the rapid pulling off of line by a fish. See drag, click drag, disk drag.
Fly Rod: a type of fishing rod specially designed to cast a fly line. Fly rods differ from other kinds of rods in that the reel attaches at the butt of the rod with the rod handle always above the reel; fly rods usually have more line guides than other types of rods of the same length. Fly rod lengths vary, with typical lengths being between 7 and 9 feet. Materials used in fly rod construction are bamboo, fiberglass, and graphite.
Forceps: hand-operated medical instrument widely used in fly-fishing to remove flies from the jaws of a hooked fish. Have plier-like jaws with locking clips so that once they are clamped to the hook, they stay there until you release them.
Forward Cast: the front portion of the false cast or pick-up and lay-down, and a mirror image of the backcast.
Forward Taper: see weight forward.
Freestone Stream: A creek or river that gets most of its water flow from rainfall or snow/glacier melt. Freestone streams are most common in mountainous regions. The name freestone refers to the fact that typical freestone streams have a bottom of stones or gravel.
Fry: The first stage of a fish after hatching from an egg.
Forceps: A special medical pliers with a ratchet-locking action that are useful in removing a hook from a fish. These slim-nosed pliers are readily available in a number of lengths and sizes. Check a local medical supply.
Furnace: The coloration of feathers from a specially-bred chicken that dark brown-to-black along the center changing to light browns on edge.
 
G
Gaiters: Commonly a neoprene anklet or legging put over the top of wading shoes and to keep gravel from getting into the shoe and abrading the stocking foot of the wader. These are also called gravel guards.
Gel-spun polyethylene: A synthetic fiber that is extremely thin, supple, slippery, very abrasion resistant, and strong. It is stronger than steel for its size. It is often used as a braided fly line backing where large amounts of backing are needed, and space on the reel is limited.
Ghillie: A fishing guide in Britain, especially in Scotland, Wales and Ireland where the term originates from the Celts.
Graphite: A common material which if formed into fibers and placed in the fiberglass of a fly rod, makes the rod relatively stiff with little increase in weight as compared to fiberglass alone.
Grilse: An young, not-sexually mature Atlantic salmon
Grip: The cork handle of a fly rod, generally made of cork rings shaped in several different ways, including a cigar grip, full-wells grip, half-wells grip, superfine grip.
Grizzly: The coloration pattern from a specially bred chicken with barred black and white "V" pattern. Very popular for many flies because it may create the illusion of motion.
Guide: Metal rings, usually bent pieces of wire along the length of the fly rod to ease the release of line during casting and to distribute the stress of a fish along the entire length of the rod.
 
H
Hackle: Feathers from the neck or back of a specially bred chicken that is wrapped around the hook or otherwise attached to a fly to imitate parts of an insect, such as legs or segments of the body. Hackle tips are used also for the wings on certain flies.
Hackle Gauge: A ruler-like device to make sure the length of the hackle used is appropriate for the size of the hook. Particularly, hackle feather fibers (barbules) on a classic dry fly should be the same length as the hook gap.
Hackle Pliers: Pliers used to hold feathers while they are being wound around a hook. Generally, hackle pliers are spring-loaded and often have a rubber disk to hold the slippery feathers.
Hairbug: A fly constructed through a special technique called hair spinning whereby buoyant (hollow) winter-coat, slippery deer, elk, antelope or caribou hair is made to flare and form a solid shape. This hair can be further trimmed to shapes like frog bodies. Hairbugs are commonly used for warm water fish, but a mouse imitation hair bug is excellent for big brown trout on certain waters.
Hair Stacker: A cylinder with one end blocked that is used to get tips of animal hair lined up for wings, tails and other parts of a fly. A spent rifle cartridge is suitable for small bunches of hair.
Hatch: Generally refers to a stage of aquatic insect change when there is a transformation from a swimming to a fly stage and from underwater to a surface stage. Insects in the early part of this transition are also referred to as emergers.
Haul: A pull on the fly line with the non-casting hand to increase the line speed and get greater distance. This is done effectively during line pickupAn action associated with fly casting whereby the line speed is increased with an extra pull during line pickup, or back casting. Also see double haul.
Hollow Hair: hair from some animals is mostly hollow, thus holding air and making these hairs float. Ideal for tying dry flies and bass bugs. Antelope, deer, and elk all have hollow hair.
Hook: the object upon which the fly is tied; can be any size from tiny to huge; made from steel wire, and either bronzed, cadmium coated, or stainless. Hook designs are variable; the style used depends upon the type of fly that is tied.
Hook Size: To a degree hooks are standardized based upon the gap (or gape) which is defined as the distance between the hook shank and the hook point.
Smaller numbers refer to larger hooks, consistent with the origin of hooks made from steel wire stock. Hooks for fly fishing range from a very small #24 (gap of 2 mm) to very large #2 (hook gap of 10 mm).
 
I
Improved Clinch Knot: An popular knot to tie a monofilament tippet to the eye of a hook. Also called the Trilene knot, after substantial publicity by the folks at Berkely. If the tippet is run through the loop twice it is even stronger.
Indicator: floating object placed on the leader or end of the fly line to “indicate” the take of the fly by a fish or to indicate the path of the drift of the fly; used when nymph fishing with a slackline; very useful.
 
K
Keeper: A loop of thin wire built into the shaft of the fly rod (near the grip) the fly can be attached while still connected to the tippet and line. This allows the fly fisher freedom to walk and climb without concern about hooking trees, grass or himself.
Kick Boat: A personalized, one-person fishing boat, usually with a seat between two pontoons at a level that allows the angler’s feet to be in the water. It is propelled by swim fins, oars, or an even a small electric motor. Also called a kick boat.
Kype: A male spawning trout or salmon develops a hook-like protrusion on the mandible. The kype is particularly striking in salmon.
Knotless Tapered Leader: a fly fishing leader, entirely constructed from a single piece of monofilament. Extrusion or acid immersion is most commonly used to taper the leader.
Knotted Leader: fly fishing leader created by knotting sections of different diameter leader material to each other to make a tapered leader. The most commonly used knots to construct such a leader are blood (or barrel) knot and surgeon’s knot (see blood knot, surgeon’s knot, leader, tapered leader, leader material).
 
L
Larva: the immature, aquatic, growing stage of the caddis and some other insects. Many species of caddis larva build a protective covering of fine gravel or debris to protect them in this stage. The larva is a bottom-dwelling non-swimming stage of the insect.
Leader: A single piece of tapered monofilament or multiple segments of monofilament stepped down from large where it is attached to the fly line to small where it is attached to the tippet. The butt end is usually fairly large and stiff (say 0.023 inches diameter) with the tippet end around 3X or 4X (.008-.007 inches). The section near the fly may include a tippet.
Leader Material: clear nylon or other types of monofilament. Two types are commonly used. One is the stiff or hard type, primarily used for the butt section and saltwater leaders; the second type is soft or supple monofilament, used mostly for tippets on all line weights, and for complete leaders on lightweight fly lines (see leader, monofilament, tippet).
Level Line (L): an untapered fly line, usually floating. It is difficult to cast, a poor line for delicacy or distance, and a poor choice for an all-round line.
Lie: Areas in a river or lake where fish hang out, commonly well-located because they are out of the main current, present cover from predators or provide a good source of insects and other food.
Line Dressing: An old term carried over from the days of silk fly lines referring to the oily substances applied to clean and increase buoyancy. Modern fly lines generally only need to be cleaned with warm water and soap.
Line Weight: The weight of the first 30 feet of a fly line, used as a way to standardize fly lines in matching them to fly rods of differing stiffness. Line weighting is not a linear numbering system; the first 30 feet of a #6 weight line 160 grains while the first 30 feet of a #3 weight line is 100 grains.
Loading the Rod: phrase used to describe the bend put in the rod by the weight of the line as it travels through the air during the cast.
Loop to Loop: A way to connect a fly line and a leader by making a loop at the end of the leader (perfection loop knot) and a loop attached to the end of the fly line. Loop to loop connections are sometimes made from a leader to a tippet.
 
M
Marabou: Fluffy and soft down or under feathers from most birds, but particularly for fly tying, marabou comes from chickens, turkeys or other domestic fowl.
Matching the Hatch: An attempt by a fly angler to select an artificial fly that imitates the color, size, shape, and behavior of natural insects that fish are feeding on at a particular time. Often when a hatch is happening, fish become very selective and refuse insects that are not the most abundant.
Mayfly: worldwide, the most commonly imitated aquatic insect. Most dry fly and nymph patterns resemble this insect. The nymph stage of the mayfly lasts approximately one year; adult stages last one to three days. The adult has one pair of upright wings, making it look like a small sailboat. Mayflies are commonly found in cold or cool freshwater environments.
Mending Line: the method used after the line is on the water to achieve a drag-free float. It constitutes a flip, or series of flips with the rod tip, which puts a horseshoe-shaped bow in the line. This slows down the speed with which the line travels if mended upstream and speeds up the line if mended downstream. For example: if a cast is across the flow of the stream and the fastest part of the current is on your side, the mends would typically be made upstream to slow the line down, so it keeps pace with the fly traveling in the slower current across from you.
Midge: a term properly applied to the small Dipterans that trout feed. Many people call them gnats. Adult’s appearance is similar to mosquitoes. Midges have two wings that lie in a flat “V” shape over the back when at rest. They are also known as “the fly fisher’s curse” because of their small size and trout’s affinity to feeding upon them. The term “midge” is sometimes loosely applied (and incorrectly so) when referring to small mayflies.
Monofilament: a clear, supple nylon filament used in all types of fishing that is available in many breaking strengths (see breaking strength) and diameters.
 
N
Nail Knot: the method used to attach a leader or butt section of monofilament to the fly line, and of connecting the backing to the fly line; most commonly tied using a small diameter tube rather than a nail.
Narrow Loop: a term that describes what the fly line should look like as it travels through the air; a narrow loop can best be described as the letter “U” turned on its side; it is formed by using a narrow casting arc.
Needle Nail Knot: same as the nail knot except that the leader or backing is run up through the center of the fly line for 3/16 to 3/8 inch, then out through the side of the fly line before the nail knot is tied; this allows the backing or the leader to come out the center of the fly line rather than along the side of it as in the nail knot.
Nymph: immature form of insects; as fly fishers, we are concerned only with the nymphs of aquatic insects.
Nymphing: a word describing fish feeding on nymphs; nymphing right at the surface can be difficult to tell from fish feeding on adults; careful observation should tell.
 
O
Open Loop: a term used to describe what the fly line looks like as it travels through the air during a poor cast, caused by a vast casting arc.
 
P
Palmered: A term used to describe feathers wound perpendicular to the shank of the hook and apparently based upon the appearance of pilgrims bearing palms.
Parachute Style Fly: A dry fly with the dry fly hackle wrapped horizontally under the hook or at the base of the wings, providing a type of outrigger flotation.
Parr: A young trout, salmon or char, usually in the so-called fingerling stage.
Perfection Loop: This is a knot often used to create a loop in a piece of monofilament, frequently at the butt end of a leader for the loop to loop connection.
Pick-up & Lay Down: a fly fishing cast using only a single backcast. The line is lifted from the water, and a back cast made, followed by a forward cast which is allowed to straighten and fall to the water, completing the cast; good wet fly cast; also useful in bass bugging; most efficient cast to use, when possible because the fly spends more time in the water (also see presentation).
Polarized Sunglasses: Sunglasses with iodized lenses that block incident light (glare) and thus allow anglers to better see beneath the surface glare of the water.
Pool: A reach or segment of a river or stream with greater depth and slower current, making it safer from predators bird and animal and where swimming against the current is reduced.
Popper: A topwater lure, made of painted balsa wood or deer hair, with a flat face that causes it to make a popping sound when retrieved. It is commonly used for warmwater panfish, bass and some saltwater species.
Popping Bug: a bass bug made from a hard material. Usually, cork or balsa wood, as these are high floating materials that can be made into a variety of shapes.
Presentation: A term referring to the placing of a fly to the feeding region of a fish. While appears to be a pretentious term, it reflects the precision and elegance of casting a fly in a manner that it perfectly imitates a natural insect.
Pupa: An intermediate stage of certain insects, generally the stage between the larva and adult form of caddisflies or midges. It also refers to the fly imitation of these insects.
 
R
Reach cast: A cast used for adding extra slack in the line, or when fishing downstream, in order to provide a more natural float.
Redd: The hollowed-out nest in a streambed where a fish deposits its eggs, a behavior typical to most salmonids.
Reel Seat: The part of the fly rod - made of aluminum, wood, or graphite and located just behind the grip - where the fly reel is attached.
Retrieve: bringing the fly back towards the caster after the cast is made; can be done in a variety of ways; important points of retrieving are to keep the rod tip low and pointed straight down the line.
Rise: The action of a fish as it comes to the surface of the water to feed. Different kinds of rises (splashy, dimpled, etc.) suggest different kinds of feeding and may suggest different kinds of insects.
Roll Cast: one of the three most basic fly casts; allows a cast to be made without a backcast; essential for use with sinking lines, to bring the line to the surface so it may be picked up and cast in a normal manner.
Run: This term has two meanings in fly fishing: (1) A section of stream where relatively shallow water goes over a rough or gravel bottom and then into a pool. (2) The pulling out of line a hooked fish makes in trying to escape.
Running Line: a thin line attached to the back of a shooting taper (shooting head) line. May be 20 to 30-pound monofilament, braided nylon, narrow floating or sinking line, or other material. Usually 100 feet in length, it allows the fly fisher to quickly change the type of line being used by interchanging only the head section.
 
S
Scud: A small freshwater shrimp-like crustacean that is present in most trout waters and serves as a food source for trout.
“S” Cast: cast used to put deliberate and controlled slack into a cast, used in getting a drag-free float and in conjunction with mending line (see drag, dead drift, mending line).
Saltwater Taper: a weight forward fly line that is similar to a bass bug taper (see weight forward and bass bug taper).
Sea-Run: A term describing brown, cutthroat and rainbow trout that hatch in fresh water, migrate to the sea to mature, and return to fresh water to spawn. Rainbow trout (in the Pacific Northwest and Great Lakes) are the best known sea-run trout; these are called steelhead.
Setting the Hook: the act of pulling the hook into the flesh of the fish’s mouth. The amount of effort needed to do this varies with the size of hook, type of fish, and breaking strength of leader; most people strike too hard on trout and warm water fish and not hard enough on salmon and saltwater fish.
Shooting Taper (ST)or Shooting Head: a short single tapered fly line, 30-38 feet long; shooting heads are designed for longest casts with minimum effort; shooting heads allow quick change of line types (floating, sinking, sink-tip, etc.)by quickly interchanging head sections; shooting heads are most commonly used with salmon, steelhead, saltwater, and shad fishing, though they can be used in all types of fly fishing.
Shooting Line: The process of extending the length of your fly cast be releasing an extra length of fly line (usually held in your non-casting hand) during the forward/presentation part of the cast. This technique allows a fly angler to false cast a shorter segment of line and then only at the time of the final forward cast to bring a longer segment of the line into play.
Single Action: The typical fly reel wherein a single turn of the handle causes one turn of the reel spool. This is distinguished from the multiplier reel where a single turn of the handle causes multiple turns of the spool and makes it easier to retrieve line. Almost all high-quality fly reels are single action.
Sink Rate: the speed at which a sinking fly line sinks; there are at least six different sink rates for fly lines, from very slow to extremely fast.
Sink-Tip Fly Line (F/S): a floating fly line where the tip portion sinks; available in 4 foot, 10 foot, 12 foot, 15 foot, 20 foot, 24 foot, and 30 foot sinking tips; the 10-foot sink-tips are most commonly used and are practical in many applications; sink-tip lines are useful in all types of fly fishing, but especially in wet fly or streamer fishing.
Sinking Fly Line (S): a fly line in which the entire length of the line sinks beneath the surface of the water.
Spawn: The behavior of fish where females deposit eggs (also called spawn) on various surfaces (varying with species) and the male produces necessary milt to ultimately turn the eggs into fry.
Spey: A particular casting technique using special two-handed rods and a modified roll cast. It is named after a river in Scotland where it was developed.
Spinner: the egg-laying stage of the mayfly; overall not as important to the fly fisher as the dun stage; (see mayfly and dun).
Spinner Fall: When mayfly of a particular sub-species goes into the spinner stage they do so over a relatively short period of time, sometimes creating a feeding frenzy during what is called a spinner fall.
Split cane rods: Fly rods constructed of six pieces of split cane bamboo, which are triangularly shaped, tapered and glued together. Split cane rods appear to have originated in the U.S. in the middle of the 19th century. While used by some modern anglers, graphite/fiberglass rods offer less expensive and easier-to-care for options.
Spool: the part of the fly reel that revolves and which holds the backing and the fly line; may be purchased separately.
Spring Creek: A creek or stream that gets its water from a ground flow or spring sources, rather than glacier/snow melt or surface runoff. Spring creeks are generally at a temperature of the average rainfall temperature over the course of the year (the source of most groundwater) and hence usually do not warm significantly in the summer nor freeze in the winter.
S-cast: An "S" pattern of the fly line on the water created by the side-to-side movement of the fly rod during the forward cast. This cast is used to put slack in the fly line and hence to reduce the influence of the current on the fly line and thus to minimize drag.
Stonefly: vital aquatic insect; nymph lives for one to three years, depending on species; most species hatch out by crawling to the shoreline and emerging from its nymphal case above the surface. Thus adults are available to trout only along the shoreline and around midstream obstructions; adult has two pairs of wings which are folded flat along its back when at rest; stoneflies require a rocky bottomed stream with excellent water quality.
Streamer: fly tied to imitate the various species of baitfish upon which game fish feed, usually tied using feathers for the wing, but can be tied with hair and/or feathers; tied in all sizes (see bucktail).
Strike: The action of a fish in trying to eat a fly. This term also refers to the movement of the rod a fly angler makes to set the hook.
Stripping guide: The guide nearest the reel on a fly rod, usually more substantial and larger in diameter than the snake guides nearer the tip. It is called a stripping guide because in bringing in the fly, the line is pulled over this guide with a fair amount a force. Some rods have two stripping guides, with the larger being nearer the reel.
Steelhead: A variety of rainbow trout that spawns and lives part of its life in freshwater streams and other parts in oceans. While native to the Pacific Ocean, steelhead has been successfully introduced into many large lakes and now are found in some tributaries of all of North America's Great Lakes.
Stripping: Bringing in a fly line within a series of short or varied pulls so as to simulate a living insect or baitfish. Often also involves movements of the rod tip.
Surgeon’s Knot: excellent knot used to tie two lengths of monofilament together; the lines may be of dissimilar diameters.
 
T
Tailing: This term refers to the behavior of fish in shallow water where it is possible to see the caudal fins as they feed. Tailing fish are an exciting discovery and generally signal the possibility of getting strikes by the proper presentation of the right fly.
Tailwater: The downstream section of a river or stream found below a large man-made dam. The most famous and productive tailwaters are from bottom-discharge dams, making the water relatively cold and constant in temperature.
Tapered Leader: a leader made of monofilament and used for fly fishing; the back or butt section of the leader is of a diameter nearly as large as the fly line, then becomes progressively smaller in diameter as you approach the tip end (see knotless tapered leader, knotted leader, and tippet).
Terrestrial insect: As the name implies, these are land-dwelling (or tree/plant-dwelling) insects that breathe air, including grasshoppers, crickets, ants, beetles and leaf worms.
Tight Loop: same as narrow loop (see “narrow loop”).
Tinsel: A thin silver, gold or brass-colored ribbon used in adding shine ton flies, often as ribbing or for fly bodies.
Tippet: the end section of a tapered leader; the smallest diameter section of a tapered leader; the fly is tied onto the tippet.
Turn Over: words that describe how the fly line and leader straighten out at completion of the cast.
Tip Section: The top section of a fly rod, smallest in diameter and furthest from the rod grip.
Tip-Top: A guide for the fly line with a small cylinder attached that fits over the end of the fly rod.
Triangle Taper: A special taper profile to a fly line designed by Lee Wulff, with 40 feet of continuous taper, with a thin running line. Particularly useful for roll casts.
 
U
Unloading the Rod: unbending the rod. Transfering the casting energy from the rod back into the fly line.
 
V
Variant: A dry fly variety wound hackles that are much larger than normally recommended. It is tied generally to conventional patterns.
Vest: a fly fisher’s wearable tackle box; numerous styles available; particularly important in wading situations.
Vise: A tool used by fly tiers to hold the hook secure as thread, feathers and fur are attached and the fly is being constructed. Usually the most expensive and the single most important purchase for a fly tyer.
 
W
Waders: two main types used in fishing: boot foot and stocking foot; boot foot have boots built-in, just pull on and go; stocking foot requires the use of a pair of wading shoes and provides better support and traction.
Wader Belt: An adjustable belt cinched near the top of chest waders to keep out water, particularly recommended as a precaution to the waders filling up with water in the event of a fall.
Wading Shoes: shoes explicitly built to be worn over stocking foot waders; can be made of PVC coated nylon or other synthetic materials like Gore-Tex which will breath better and last longer
Wading Staff: A walking stick especially adapted to provide stability to a wading fly angler when moving through fast or deep water. Some wading staffs are foldable and can be kept in a fishing vest pocket until needed.
Weedguard: A piece of stiff monofilament or light wire attached from the top of the hook and extending in front of the hook point and bend to the hook eye. If properly attached, a weedguard reduces the likelihood of a fly picking up weeds, yet it does not deter the hooking of a fish. Weedguards are especially popular for underwater warm water flies.
Weight Forward (WF): an easy casting fly line because it carries most of its weight in the forward section of the line; instead of a level middle section, like a double taper, it quickly tapers down to a fine diameter running line which shoots through the guides with less resistance for added distance; the most versatile fly line.
Wet Fly: (1) any fly fished below the surface of the water; nymphs and streamers are wet flies (2) a traditional style of fly tied with soft, swept back hackle, and a backward sweeping wing; the forerunner of the nymph and streamer.
Wet Fly Swing: typical presentation method for fishing a wet fly. Cast the fly downstream and across, and then swim it across the current. Commonly used to imitate swimming mayflies, emerging caddis, and small fish.
Whip Finisher: A tool used in tying flies that helps the fly tier lay down a smooth and compact head of the fly.
Winding: Wraps of thread that are used to attach the stripping guides and snake guides on the fly rod blank.
Wind Knot: in the process of casting, especially for beginners, loops form particularly in the leader and tippet. The formation of such loops is made worse by casting in the wind and hence when they become knots in the leader or tippet they are called wind knots
 
X
X Diameter: archaic measurement used to designate the diameter of leader material used in conjunction with a numeral, as in “4X”. To determine the actual width of “4X” or any “X” number, subtract the digit from the number 11 (eleven). The result is the diameter in thousandths of an inch. For example, to find the width of 4X material, subtract 4 from 11 (11: 4 = 7); thus, the diameter is .007″. *Note* diameter does not always correspond to breaking strength.
 
Y -
 
Z -

Quick Tutorial

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Stacks Image 2394
CAÑON CITY WEATHER

Quick Tutorial

Your Google Spreadsheet must be divided into titled columns like so:

Data can be grabbed using double curly braces {{ }} like so:

{{row.followers}}

⬇︎

1000, 1200, 5000 . . .

Gsheet will take whatever content placed inside, and
duplicate it for each row in your spreadsheet.

You can simply grab the value for the corresponding row by typing:
{{row.attribute}} or {{row.multiword_value}}

Column titles MUST start with a letter.
Values like {{row.2019}} or {{row.2019_year}} will NOT work

TRY IT OUT! 👉

{{row.name}}
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H2O Tempº
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Water / Class
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Status

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